Coal is still used as the primary energy source for electricity generation in Turkey. The environmental problems such as CO2 and SOx emissions and trace elements (Hg, As, etc.) emerge with the use of large amounts of coal. Moreover, the high moisture and ash content reduces the energy efficiency. Therefore, many studies have been realized about the development and application of the coal preparation and treatments.
Turkish coals generally contain high amount of ash, sulfur, moisture and alkaline compounds. It will be possible to use much more coal having low ash, moisture and sulfur content in the industrial and heating area. In this context, the following studies have been realized in the institute.
- Development of technologies for reducing the ash content
- Development of technology to reduce the moisture content,
- Development of briquetting / pelleting technology,
There are many applications for use of coal with low heat value (such as lignite, peat and Leonardit) in different areas except for fuel. The valuable products like humic acid and montan wax are produced from coal by the extraction method. Among these is produced by extraction of products such as humic acid, and montan wax.
De-Ashing of Low Rank Coal By Solvent Extraction Method and Development of Alternative Products
Inorganic materials in the coal have negative effects on the coal quality. Therefore the production of ash-free coal was inevitable to eliminate the problems occured by ash in the coal. After de-ashing process, ashless coals will be reason for the new use areas. Due to the differences in the coal structure, the extensive research is required to determine the conditions for ash removal
It is expected that ash-less coals will cause:
- Increase in calorific value ,between 10-15 %
- Decrease in heavy metal content
- Removal of inorganic sulfur
- improvement of combustion and ignition capability
- Increase in volatile content
Coal obtained with the removal of ash will be used in the production of following materials;
- As carbon material in the melting of iron and non-iron materials
- As blending coal in the coke production,
- activated carbon,
- carbon electrodes,
- In addition, in coal-water mixture as fuel
Lignite and / or coal dust waste (from coal slimes) will be briquetted directly or with a variety of different coal or agricultural residues (biomass). The conditions effecting briquetting will be determined and the briquetting process will be developed.
Humic Acid production from Lignite Coal
Humic acid called as natural organic polymer is found in coals such as lignite, peat and Leonardite. The production of humic acid in the large scale is realized from coals with alkali extraction method. Modified humic acid derivatives are produced in the pilot plant for 50 kg quantity and availability are shown in the following fields.
- Purification of waste and/or drinking water
- Cement and drilling fluids
- Recovery of valuable products
Organomineral Fertilizer from Lignite Coal
Organo-mineral fertilizers having important place in organic agriculture are obtained by the reaction or blending of one or more organic products with more than one simple or composite chemical fertilizer. The coals containing humic acids (lignite, Leonardite, peat) as raw materials have been used in the production of commercial organic soil improvers and organo-mineral fertilizers. In this project, the organo-mineral fertilizers containing in the different amount of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) were produced from the lignite and Leonardite coals which are important natural resource